Two, the effect of information repetition: I have to repeat the misinformation to correct it, and this familiarity makes people think the information is more true. Elizabeth Loftus is a leading memory researcher whose studies influence what we know about the permanence and reliability of memory. [9] Additionally, elderly adults are more susceptible than younger adults. We did see, too, that people who are very politically engaged are more likely to view and share political fake news. The type of memory affected is called episodic memory. We assemble a list of 570 sites identified as sources of false stories in a set of five previous studies and online lists. The misinformation effect occurs when a person's recall of episodic memories becomes less accurate because of post-event information. It’s pretty infamous in politics, but it’s also very prevalent in other areas like health and wellness, too. The experimental paradigm used to test the misinformation effect usually contains three steps. Others were asked how fast they thought the car was going when it smashed into the other. These studies demon-strate that misleading post-event information affects what people errone-ously report about the past. In one oft-cited study led by Elizabeth Loftus, people watched footage of a car accident.Later some were asked to estimate the speed at which the car was going when it hit the other car. Okado and Stark (2005) used eight complex vignettes each Surprisingly, however, a detailed debunking message also correlated positively with the misinformation-persistence effect.” “Displacing Misinformation about Events: An Experimental Test of Causal Corrections” Nyhan, Brendan; Reifler, Jason. Fake news, misinformation, and disinformation is everywhere. This is a problem particularly in cases where more than one person witnesses a crime. The researchers looked at nationally representative online survey data collected from an initial sample of 1,000 U.S. adults that examined attitudes toward the flu vaccine. However, these studies generally focused on “media literacy” messages which sought to warn users on the dangers of misinformation broadly. Cancer is scary. Loftus ( 1977 ) showed participants a slideshow depicting a green car driving past an auto accident. misinformation effect that can relate to the hundreds of behav- ioral studies that have been done on the topic. The pandemic means more Americans are on it … While other studies have shown similar results with the misinformation effect, this was the first study to demonstrate that false memory-inducing techniques can alter recently experienced events as well as remote experiences from years back. The misinformation was remembered as being a part of the original event 47% of the time. As a result, false headlines that fail to get tagged, or aren’t tagged quickly, could be taken as truth. And the way misinformation or rumors spread on social media varies by topic. A subset of research on the misinformation effect explores whether the negative effects of misinformation on memory can be reversed, or at least minimized (e.g., Blank and Launay 2014; Chambers and Zaragoza 2001; Christiaansen and Ochalek 1983; Eakin et al. Auslander et al. We refer to these collectively as fake news sites. A study by Rand and his co-authors outlined a potential downfall to labeling misinformation online: the “implied truth effect,” where people assume all information without a label is true. For example, actors generating misinformation on diet and exercise, might differ from those spreading anti-vaccination messages. Other studies have shown that misinformation can corrupt memory even more easily when it is encountered in social situations (Gabbert, Memon, Allan, & Wright, 2004). 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