From a dynamic systems perspective, individual difference factors, contextual factors, and metacognitive factors are all control parameters that may push the system toward or away from particular attractor states. Thus, we draw on dynamic systems principles in addressing the hierarchical organization of families, with multiple individuals and relationships nested within families, and the hierarchical organization of time, with multiple time scales nested within one another. As an illustration, a mother and her adolescent might have a fairly close relationship, but there may be periods of more or less closeness; that is, the system may oscillate back and forth past its baseline level of closeness. A similar approach could be applied to conceptualizing how different types of factors interact to drive strategy use and strategy change. A dynamical system consists of an abstract phase space or state space, whose coordinates describe the state at any instant, and a dynamical rule that specifies the immediate future of all state variables, given only the present values of those same state variables. These variables are also related to observations that nothing was added when the liquid was poured, and that it would be same again if poured back. A first step in this direction was taken as Thelen, Smith, and colleagues applied DST concepts to Piaget's A-not-B task, purported to index the concept of object permanence in infants. With this theoretical perspective in mind, the purpose of this chapter is to present the macro (often referred to as social determinants) that have been examined as potential attractors that either push children towards or pull them away from developmental trajectories that perpetuate problematic and disruptive behaviors. Such a system is organized around the distribution of energy inherent in the system, as in a coiled spring, or around the energy inherent in downward flowing sand impelled by the force of gravity. In its contem porary form ula-tion, the theory g row s d irectly from advances in under-stand ing com plex and nonlinear system s in physics and m athem atics, but it also follow s a long and rich trad i-tion of system s th in k ing in biology and psychology. Links have also been made between dynamic systems models and neural net models, to be considered below. Our review of DST concepts is not an exhaustive list but instead focuses on those most foundational to the study of cognitive development. The complexity inherent to these problems calls for a lens of examination that considers inextricable, active components. Dynamic systems theory conceptualizes smiles and other expressive configurations as constituents of infant emotional processes (Camras et al., 2018; Messinger et al., 1997; Thelen and Smith, 1994; Witherington et al., 2001). Is the learner highly confident that a particular strategy is correct?). We come from the “Bloomington camp” associated with Thelen and Smith, and therefore primarily present examples from this “family” of researchers. The process of smiling is part of the infant's experience of joy as well as an element in the infant's emotional communication with others. This development is spontaneous and is not usually taught. Halford, in Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development (Second Edition), 2020. Dynamical systems theory may display four types of attractors: fixed points, limit cycles, limit tori, and chaotic attractors. Common strategies can be viewed as “attractor states”—highly probable behavioral states, to which the behavior of the system is drawn. Typically, we study children's behavior in the lab at one point in time and then at another point in time. What appears to happen is that the children start to relate the three variables of height, width, and quantity, as mentioned before. Bifurcation theory 12 1.6. Nicol's interests include Ergodic theory of group extensions and geometric rigidity, ergodic theory of hyperbolic dynamical systems, dynamics of skew products and iterated function systems, and equivariant dynamical systems. The theory has informed analysis of dynamic skill development, parent-adolescent relationships, peer contagion, and antisocial development. The last foundational concept is the nesting of timescales. theory of motor development that can be applied to the management of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP; Darrah & Bartlett The Motor Control Theory And The Dynamical Systems Theory Speed Control Of Separated Excited Dc Motor. 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